The Artist's Umbrella

Originally published November 6, 2008.

Guy Rose in Giverny, c.1890; Courtesy of The Rose Family Archives and The Irvine Museum
Guy Rose in Giverny, c.1890; Courtesy of The Rose Family Archives and The Irvine Museum

I often promote this topic in my outdoor painting classes, and thought it would be fun to investigate some of the history behind, as well as reasons for, the use of umbrellas for outdoor painting.

With the resurgence of painting outdoors - "en plein air," a tribute to the French artists who popularized it - in the last few decades, many topics have become widely discussed as artists share their ideas and approaches. Probably the toughest endeavor known to artists is painting outdoors, with all of the hazards it invites. Artists have always traded thoughts on the gear they use - what easel, which brushes, what type of surface to paint on, the best brands of paint and the particular colors they prefer. It tends to get rather technical, but can be very helpful for approaching outdoor painting.

One item that is rarely, if ever, discussed is the outdoor artist's umbrella. Usually only mentioned in passing, umbrellas should be given a much more important place in the accoutrements of the plein air artist. 

Claude Monet (1840-1926), Giverny
Claude Monet (1840-1926), Giverny

First and foremost, artists do not paint outdoors with the intention to copy Nature. (This could form a completely separate discussion - the influence of photography, television and movies on contemporary perceptions of what is "real.") Instead, what artists are attempting to paint are the color relationships. There is no possible way anyone can paint what they actually see - because they are using paint, a very limited resource, to try and imitate light, which is incredibly vast. So the broader the range of colors you have on your palette, the better chance you have to paint those color relationships - akin to having more keys on a piano with which to play your notes. Would a pianist prefer to play a piece by Mozart with just six piano keys, or a whole piano? Color is a language that every human being speaks; it is the artist's job to communicate.

Claude Monet (1840-1926), in his third studio constructed for painting his Water Lilies, Giverny
Claude Monet (1840-1926), in his third studio constructed for painting his Water Lilies, Giverny

Here is the main reason for working with an umbrella outdoors - the artist is attempting to paint those subtle color relationships amidst a tremendous amount of light. If you've walked out of your dark house into the bright morning sunlight, you understand how much light there is outdoors when you're forced to squint - because your eyes can't handle the intense change. After spending a little time outdoors, though, we adjust to the intense light, and it starts to look "normal," i.e. it doesn't seem as intense as it did initially (this same phenomenon is true for a lot of other situations, too). The challenge is painting color relationships that will recreate light in all of its innumerable manifestations - and then bring the painting indoors where it will ultimately be viewed, still retaining that sense of light.

Winslow Homer (1836-1910), "Artists Sketching in the White Mountains," 1868
Winslow Homer (1836-1910), "Artists Sketching in the White Mountains," 1868
Joaquin Sorolla (1863-1923), note the shade he is working under
Joaquin Sorolla (1863-1923), note the shade he is working under

Claude Monet used a large white umbrella outdoors which recreated the soft lighting that he used in his studio (Figs. 1 & 2), both of which allowed him to control the light. Joaquin Sorolla used umbrellas and large shades (Fig. 3) - especially when painting on the beach. Many of his beach paintings show evidence that he was working from underneath a shade of some sort. Charles Webster Hawthorne (1872-1930) and Henry Hensche (1899-1992), both known for their color, used umbrellas. Alson Skinner Clark worked under an umbrella when painting in the California desert (Fig. 4) and John Singer Sargent used two when he worked outdoors (Fig. 5) in Switzerland. Besides photographic evidence, upon encountering these artists' beautiful work in person, one realizes that they were obviously using umbrellas of one kind or another to control how they saw.

Alson Clark

Alson Clark

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) painting in the Simplon Pass
John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) painting in the Simplon Pass

The modern artist's umbrella has improved - it still has a light exterior to reflect light/heat away, but now includes a dark interior to absorb reflected light/heat - allowing the artist to see their painting better, as well as keeping them cooler on hot days. (Other areas related to this are avoiding white palettes, and not wearing light or brightly colored clothing. Everything reflects!) The idea is to create the best situation outdoors in which to see your work, so that when you bring it inside, the colors are not dead. A translucent white umbrella outdoors does not block much light, so our eyes stay adjusted to the heightened intensity of outdoor light - and we paint too darkly. Though the photos above seem to feature primarily white umbrellas, they also appear to be much more opaque than today's white umbrellas, whose main purpose seems to be giving the artist an even sunburn.

The umbrella with a dark interior appears to have been a contribution by the Russians. Known for their beautiful and unique color, the idea was promoted by Sergei Bongart (1918-1985) who emigrated from Russia to the U.S. at about the time of World War II.  So, to be able to paint great color, you first need to be able to see great color, and the umbrella is a must. Maybe two or three. As Sergei would say: "Co-lor must sing!"

Dan Pinkham in Yosemite; courtesy the artist
Dan Pinkham in Yosemite; courtesy the artist

Thanks to Jean Stern, Director of the Irvine MuseumDan Pinkham, and Arthur Egeli for help researching this.

Still Life: Eric Merrell Looks at the Orange and Agave

Eric Merrell, Agave and Oranges

Eric Merrell, Agave and Oranges

In the hierarchy of genres taught in art history class, desert landscapes would be low on the list. But they positively rule compared to the lowly still life. Fortunately, the lowest-rated form has a new champion in Eric Merrell. The Pasadena artist has a style and intensity that attracts followers for whatever he’s doing, whether it’s painting Joshua Trees at midnight or a potted Euphorbia in his own backyard.

Read the entire article on CaliforniaDesertArt.com

Nocturnes: A short film

This exciting project was just released a few weeks ago. Nocturnes is a short film that follows me into the desert while I paint at night. It was shot on a Sony A7S, which is the first camera with the ability to film in moonlight without any other light sources. It was all shot on location - even the lightning storm.

We've also gotten some nice coverage since its release:

Huffington Post

L.A. Review of Books

Curbed L.A.

BLDGBLOG

Artists on Art (issue 17 contains an article I wrote, “Is Plein Air in Moonlight Possible?”)

ArtFoodHome.com


NOCTURNES SCREENINGS AT U.S. FILM FESTIVALS

Lone Star Film Festival, Fort Worth, TX, Nov 10 – 13, 2016
St. Louis International Film Festival, St. Louis, IL, Nov 3 – 13, 2016
Hot Springs Documentary Film Festival, Hot Springs, AR, Oct 7-16, 2016
Alameda International Film Festival, Alameda, CA, Oct 7 – 9, 2016
Tacoma Film Festival, Tacoma, WA, Oct 6 – 13, 2016
Great Lakes International Film Festival, Erie, PA, Sept 22 – Oct 1, 2016
Joshua Tree International Film Festival, Joshua Tree, CA,  Sept 16 – 18, 2016
Atlanta Underground Film Festival, Atlanta, GA, Aug 19 – 21, 2016
DocuWest International Film Festival, Denver, CO, May 11 – 15, 2016
RAW Film Festival, Los Angeles, CA, April 24, 2016

Golden State

I grew up in Northern California where summer turns the rolling hills to a burnished gold. With the oaks and sage mingling and creating hillside patterns, it's the classic California landscape. I was recently was able to explore and paint my hometown - here are a few of the pieces done on location.

Summer's Golden Brilliance, 14" x 14" © Eric Merrell

Summer's Golden Brilliance, 14" x 14" © Eric Merrell

The Land You Know, 14" x 14" © Eric Merrell

The Land You Know, 14" x 14" © Eric Merrell

Burnished Hillsides, 12" x 18" © Eric Merrell

Burnished Hillsides, 12" x 18" © Eric Merrell

The Sun's Fiery Stare, 12" x 18" © Eric Merrell

The Sun's Fiery Stare, 12" x 18" © Eric Merrell